By john. Door. Published at Wednesday, November 30th, 2016 - 13:59:13 PM.
Suicide door : A suicide door is the slang term for an automobile door hinged at its rear rather than the front. Such doors were originally used on horse-drawn carriages, but are rarely found on modern vehicles, primarily because they are widely perceived as being unsafe. Popularized in the custom car trade, the term is avoided by major automobile manufacturers in favor of alternatives such as coach doors (Rolls-Royce), FlexDoors (Opel), freestyle doors (Mazda), rear access door (Saturn), and rear-hinged doors (preferred technical term).
Car Door General design : Unlike other types of doors, the exterior side of the vehicle door contrasts in its design and finish from its interior side (the interior part is typically equipped with a door card (in British English) or a door panel (in American English) that has decorative and functional features. The exterior side of the door is designed of steel or other material like the rest of the vehicles exterior. In addition, its decorative appearance, typically colored with a design, is intended to match with the rest of the vehicles exterior, the central purpose being to add to the overall aesthetic appeal of the vehicle exterior. A vehicle typically has two types of doors: front doors and rear doors. Loosely related are: vehicle hoodsand vehicle trunk lids. There are also doors known as a hatch (see door categorization below) A major safety issue with opened vehicle doors is the assumption at night vehicle doors can provide a warning to other vehicle drivers. Unfortunately it is estimated over 50 percent of all vehicle doors have nothing applied to the interior of the vehicle door such as light and/or a reflector. Unfortunately these devices need not meet any US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards since no standards apply. To make matters worse it was reported by the Fatal Accident Reporting System that in the year 2014 not one single death was reported with a person outside the opened vehicle door at night in the entire United States of America. New safety technology such as providing to the lower interior edge of the vehicle door a highly reflective tape provides the ability of other vehicle drivers to see the opened vehicle door at night ( see US Patent No. 9,308,859 for details including diagrams of a typical application ).
Vehicle door parts : Door locks and latches : Most vehicle doors are secured closed to the vehicle body with latches which may be locked to prevent unauthorized access from the exterior. There are a variety of car door locking systems. Door locks may be manually, or automatically operated, and may be centrally or individually operated. Also, they may be operated by remote control, with the transmitter often integrated into the main vehicle access / ignition key. Additionally, rear passenger doors are frequently fitted with child safety locks to prevent children from exiting the vehicle unless the door is opened from the exterior. These are also frequently used on police cars, to prevent suspect criminals from escaping whilst in police custody. Vehicle door latches on practically all vehicles today are usually operated by use of a handle which requires the user to pull, lift, or tug - with some force towards themselves rather than push. There is a reason for this. As late as the 1970s, some vehicles used exposed push buttons to operate the door latch, such as certain Opel models. The unfortunate side effect of this design was that external objects which touched a vehicle during a spinout could trigger the latch; the door would pop open and eject the vehicle occupants. A death which occurred exactly that way led to the landmark legal case of Daly v. General Motors Corp., 20 Cal. 3d 725 (1978), in which the Supreme Court of California merged strict product liability with comparative fault, and thereby affirmed the right of General Motors to introduce evidence that decedent Kirk Daly flew out of his Opel not only because the door popped open, but because he was intoxicated and not wearing a seat belt. Door switch : Door switches are simple on/off mechanisms connected to the interior light (dome light), and may also be connected to a warning light, speaker or other device, to inform the driver when the door is not closed. The door light is standard equipment on all cars. In American cars from the 1950s-1990s, they had buzzers or door dingers that sounded, along with the check light, whenever any door is open. Windows : Most vehicle doors have windows, and most of these may be opened to various extents. Most car door windows retract downwards into the body of the doors, and are opened either with a manual crank, or switchable electrical motor (electric car windows other than the drivers window can usually be controlled at both the door itself and centrally by an additional control at the drivers position). In the past, certain retracting windows were operated by direct (up or down) pressure, and were held in the up position by friction instead of by an internal lift mechanism. Other cars, particularly older US-manufactured vans, have hinged windows with a folded lever mechanism to push and hold the window out from its closed position. Door brakes or stays : Vehicle doors often include brakes, or stays, that slow the door down just before it closes, and also prevent the door opening further than its design specification. The current trend is to have a three-stage door brake. Door brakes exist because the doors on the first vehicles were heavy, so they had to be pushed hard to make them close. Soon after, automotive manufacturers managed to construct lighter doors, but users were used to closing doors with force so doors quickly became damaged. Door brakes were then introduced to slow down the door just before the door closed to prevent damage; these soon became standard. Door categorization : Hatchback and estate or station wagon bodies are sold as three-door or five-door models. In these cases, the rear hatch is classified as a door; this is because it enters the passenger compartment. With other vehicles such as saloons or sedans and coupés, the boot/trunk lid is not counted as a door by definition because it is for a separate storage compartment - these cars are sold as two-door or four-door. This system is mainly used in Europe, and is less common in North America. In Europe, the American-style labelling is occasionally used. Usually in North America, cars are only sold as two-door or four-door models. This American-style labelling only includes the passengers and drivers doors, and not hatches on hatchbacks and station wagons. This has led to many not understanding that hatches are counted as doors in Europe, whilst the lids to sealed trunks arent. Being doored : Some cyclists refer to colliding with an open car door as being door checked. This usually happens when the cyclist is riding alongside a row of parallel-parked cars, and a driver suddenly opens his or her door immediately in front of the cyclist without first looking to see if it is safe to do so. Major advancements have been made to allow visual recognition of a partially opened vehicle door to provide a degree of warning to cyclists and motor vehicle drivers particularly at night. See US Patent No. 9,469,246.
Types of mechanism Door : Hinged doors Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. Rotating doors A revolving door has several wings or leaves, generally four, radiating from a central shaft, forming compartments that rotate about a vertical axis. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out. A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings. High-speed door A high-speed door is a very fast door some with opening speeds of up to 4 m/s, mainly used in the industrial sector where the speed of a door has an effect on production logistics, temperature and pressure control. high-speed clean room doors are used in pharmaceutical industries for the special curtain and stainless steel frames. They guarantee the tightness of all accesses. The powerful high-speed doors have a smooth surface structure and no protruding edges. Therefore, they can be easily cleaned and depositing of particles is largely excluded. High-speed doors are made to handle a high number of openings, generally more than 200,000 a year. They need to be built with heavy-duty parts and counterbalance systems for speed enhancement and emergency opening function. The door curtain was originally made of PVC, but was later also developed in aluminium and acrylic glass sections. High Speed refrigeration and cold room doors with excellent insulation values was also introduced with the Green and Energy saving requirements. In North America, the Door and Access Systems Manufacturing Association (DASMA) defines high-performance doors as non-residential, powered doors, characterized by rolling, folding, sliding or swinging action, that are either high-cycle (minimum 100 cycles/day) or high-speed (minimum 20 inches(508 mm)/second), and two out of three of the following: made-to-order for exact size and custom features, designed to be able to withstand equipment impact (break-away if accidentally hit by vehicle) or designed to sustain heavy usage with minimal maintenance. Automatic Door Automatically opening doors are powered open and closed either by electricity, spring, or both. There are several methods by which an automatically opening door is activated: A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally: A pressure sensor – e.g., a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it. An infrared curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door is triggered open. A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar for the same effect. A remote sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable remote control, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors. A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card. The act of pushing or pulling the door triggers the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors. In addition to activation sensors automatically opening doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. These are usually an infrared curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. The purpose of the safety sensor is to prevent the door from colliding with an object in its path by stopping or slowing its motion.A mechanism is set in modern automatic doors to ensure that door will be in open state in case of power failure. Others Up-and-over or overhead doors are often used in garages. Instead of hinges it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, that allows it to be lifted so that it rests horizontally above the opening. A roller shutter or sectional overhead door is one variant of this type. A tambour door or roller door is an up-and-over door made of narrow horizontal slats and rolls up and down by sliding along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets. Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened (or forced open) from outside a building. Such doors pose a substantial fire risk to occupants of occupied buildings when they are locked. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, building occupants would be prevented from escaping. In commercial and retail situations manufacturers have included in the design a mechanism that allows an inward opening door to be pushed open outwards in the event of an emergency (which is often a regulatory requirement). This is known as a breakaway feature. Pushing the door outward at its closed position, through a switch mechanism, disconnects power to the latch and allows the door to swing outward. Upon returning the door to the closed position, power is restored. Rebated doors, a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap (i.e. a Rabbet) on the vertical edge(s) where they meet. Fire-rating can be achieved with an applied edge-guard or astragal molding on the meeting stile, in accordance with the American Fire door. Evolution Door is a trackless door that moves in the same closure level as a sliding door. The system is an invention of the Austrian artist Klemens Torggler. It is a further development of the Drehplattentür [de] that normally consists of two rotatable, connected panels which move to each other when opening.
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