By john. Door. Published at Friday, November 25th, 2016 - 15:01:13 PM.
Spacecraft People have developed a variety of self-actuating, self-locking hinge designs for spacecraft deployable structures such as solar array panels, synthetic aperture radar antennas, booms, radiators, etc.
Building access Since at least medieval times there have been hinges to draw bridges for defensive purposes for fortified buildings. Hinges are used in contemporary architecture where building settlement can be expected over the life of the building. For example, the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California, was designed with its entrance ramp on a large hinge to allow settlement of the building built on piles over bay mud. This device was effective until October 2006, when it was replaced due to damage and excessive ramp slope.
Door types There are many types of door hinges. The main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened. Barrel hinge a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, and may also have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot. Pivot hinges which pivot in openings in the floor and the top of the door frame. Also referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and rarely in old wooden buildings. These are also called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors. Butt/Mortise hinges usually in threes or fours, which are inset (mortised) into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U.S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are often made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Case hinges Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however usually more of a decorative nature most commonly used in suitcases, briefcases and the like. Continuous hinges, or piano hinges This type of hinge is also known as a piano hinge. It runs the entire length of the door, panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured with or without holes. These hinges also come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, and knuckle lengths. Used for furniture doors (with or without self-closing feature, and with or without damping systems). They are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Also called "cup hinge", or "Euro hinge", as they were developed in Europe and use metric installation standards. Most such concealed hinges offer the advantage of full in situ adjustability for standoff distance from the cabinet face as well as pitch and roll by means of two screws on each hinge. Butterfly hinges, or Parliament (UK) Hinges These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century. The form of these hinges varied slightly between manufacturers, and their size ranged from the very large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes. Many hinges of this type were exported to America to support the home trades limited supply. They are still found to be both fairly cheap and decorative, especially on small items. Flag hinges A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can also swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a right hand and a left hand configuration. Strap hinges An early hinge and used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets. H hinges Shaped like an H and used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges (3–4 in or 76–102 mm) tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges (6–7 in or 150–180 mm) are for passage doors or closet doors. HL hinges Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and even 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were occasionally used in the middle along with the HL hinges. Other types include: • Counterflap hinge • Flush hinge • Coach hinge • Rising Butt hinge • Double action spring hinge • Double action non-spring • Tee hinge • Friction hinge • Security hinge • Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge • Lift-off hinge • Self closing hinge
Types of mechanism Door : Hinged doors Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. Rotating doors A revolving door has several wings or leaves, generally four, radiating from a central shaft, forming compartments that rotate about a vertical axis. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out. A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings. High-speed door A high-speed door is a very fast door some with opening speeds of up to 4 m/s, mainly used in the industrial sector where the speed of a door has an effect on production logistics, temperature and pressure control. high-speed clean room doors are used in pharmaceutical industries for the special curtain and stainless steel frames. They guarantee the tightness of all accesses. The powerful high-speed doors have a smooth surface structure and no protruding edges. Therefore, they can be easily cleaned and depositing of particles is largely excluded. High-speed doors are made to handle a high number of openings, generally more than 200,000 a year. They need to be built with heavy-duty parts and counterbalance systems for speed enhancement and emergency opening function. The door curtain was originally made of PVC, but was later also developed in aluminium and acrylic glass sections. High Speed refrigeration and cold room doors with excellent insulation values was also introduced with the Green and Energy saving requirements. In North America, the Door and Access Systems Manufacturing Association (DASMA) defines high-performance doors as non-residential, powered doors, characterized by rolling, folding, sliding or swinging action, that are either high-cycle (minimum 100 cycles/day) or high-speed (minimum 20 inches(508 mm)/second), and two out of three of the following: made-to-order for exact size and custom features, designed to be able to withstand equipment impact (break-away if accidentally hit by vehicle) or designed to sustain heavy usage with minimal maintenance. Automatic Door Automatically opening doors are powered open and closed either by electricity, spring, or both. There are several methods by which an automatically opening door is activated: A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally: A pressure sensor – e.g., a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it. An infrared curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door is triggered open. A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar for the same effect. A remote sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable remote control, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors. A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card. The act of pushing or pulling the door triggers the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors. In addition to activation sensors automatically opening doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. These are usually an infrared curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. The purpose of the safety sensor is to prevent the door from colliding with an object in its path by stopping or slowing its motion.A mechanism is set in modern automatic doors to ensure that door will be in open state in case of power failure. Others Up-and-over or overhead doors are often used in garages. Instead of hinges it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, that allows it to be lifted so that it rests horizontally above the opening. A roller shutter or sectional overhead door is one variant of this type. A tambour door or roller door is an up-and-over door made of narrow horizontal slats and rolls up and down by sliding along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets. Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened (or forced open) from outside a building. Such doors pose a substantial fire risk to occupants of occupied buildings when they are locked. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, building occupants would be prevented from escaping. In commercial and retail situations manufacturers have included in the design a mechanism that allows an inward opening door to be pushed open outwards in the event of an emergency (which is often a regulatory requirement). This is known as a breakaway feature. Pushing the door outward at its closed position, through a switch mechanism, disconnects power to the latch and allows the door to swing outward. Upon returning the door to the closed position, power is restored. Rebated doors, a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap (i.e. a Rabbet) on the vertical edge(s) where they meet. Fire-rating can be achieved with an applied edge-guard or astragal molding on the meeting stile, in accordance with the American Fire door. Evolution Door is a trackless door that moves in the same closure level as a sliding door. The system is an invention of the Austrian artist Klemens Torggler. It is a further development of the Drehplattentür [de] that normally consists of two rotatable, connected panels which move to each other when opening.
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