Published at Thursday, September 29th, 2016 - 02:18:13 AM. Door. By john.
Vehicle door parts : Door locks and latches : Most vehicle doors are secured closed to the vehicle body with latches which may be locked to prevent unauthorized access from the exterior. There are a variety of car door locking systems. Door locks may be manually, or automatically operated, and may be centrally or individually operated. Also, they may be operated by remote control, with the transmitter often integrated into the main vehicle access / ignition key. Additionally, rear passenger doors are frequently fitted with child safety locks to prevent children from exiting the vehicle unless the door is opened from the exterior. These are also frequently used on police cars, to prevent suspect criminals from escaping whilst in police custody. Vehicle door latches on practically all vehicles today are usually operated by use of a handle which requires the user to pull, lift, or tug - with some force towards themselves rather than push. There is a reason for this. As late as the 1970s, some vehicles used exposed push buttons to operate the door latch, such as certain Opel models. The unfortunate side effect of this design was that external objects which touched a vehicle during a spinout could trigger the latch; the door would pop open and eject the vehicle occupants. A death which occurred exactly that way led to the landmark legal case of Daly v. General Motors Corp., 20 Cal. 3d 725 (1978), in which the Supreme Court of California merged strict product liability with comparative fault, and thereby affirmed the right of General Motors to introduce evidence that decedent Kirk Daly flew out of his Opel not only because the door popped open, but because he was intoxicated and not wearing a seat belt. Door switch : Door switches are simple on/off mechanisms connected to the interior light (dome light), and may also be connected to a warning light, speaker or other device, to inform the driver when the door is not closed. The door light is standard equipment on all cars. In American cars from the 1950s-1990s, they had buzzers or door dingers that sounded, along with the check light, whenever any door is open. Windows : Most vehicle doors have windows, and most of these may be opened to various extents. Most car door windows retract downwards into the body of the doors, and are opened either with a manual crank, or switchable electrical motor (electric car windows other than the drivers window can usually be controlled at both the door itself and centrally by an additional control at the drivers position). In the past, certain retracting windows were operated by direct (up or down) pressure, and were held in the up position by friction instead of by an internal lift mechanism. Other cars, particularly older US-manufactured vans, have hinged windows with a folded lever mechanism to push and hold the window out from its closed position. Door brakes or stays : Vehicle doors often include brakes, or stays, that slow the door down just before it closes, and also prevent the door opening further than its design specification. The current trend is to have a three-stage door brake. Door brakes exist because the doors on the first vehicles were heavy, so they had to be pushed hard to make them close. Soon after, automotive manufacturers managed to construct lighter doors, but users were used to closing doors with force so doors quickly became damaged. Door brakes were then introduced to slow down the door just before the door closed to prevent damage; these soon became standard. Door categorization : Hatchback and estate or station wagon bodies are sold as three-door or five-door models. In these cases, the rear hatch is classified as a door; this is because it enters the passenger compartment. With other vehicles such as saloons or sedans and coupés, the boot/trunk lid is not counted as a door by definition because it is for a separate storage compartment - these cars are sold as two-door or four-door. This system is mainly used in Europe, and is less common in North America. In Europe, the American-style labelling is occasionally used. Usually in North America, cars are only sold as two-door or four-door models. This American-style labelling only includes the passengers and drivers doors, and not hatches on hatchbacks and station wagons. This has led to many not understanding that hatches are counted as doors in Europe, whilst the lids to sealed trunks arent. Being doored : Some cyclists refer to colliding with an open car door as being door checked. This usually happens when the cyclist is riding alongside a row of parallel-parked cars, and a driver suddenly opens his or her door immediately in front of the cyclist without first looking to see if it is safe to do so. Major advancements have been made to allow visual recognition of a partially opened vehicle door to provide a degree of warning to cyclists and motor vehicle drivers particularly at night. See US Patent No. 9,469,246.
Gull-wing door : A gull-wing door, also known as a falcon-wing door, is an automotive industry term describing car doors that are hinged at the roof rather than the side, as pioneered by the 1952 Mercedes-Benz 300SL race car (W194) and its road-legal version (W198) introduced in 1954. Opening upwards, the doors evoke the image of a seagulls wings. In French they are portes papillon (butterfly doors). The papillon door, slightly different in its architecture from a gullwing door – designed by Jean Bugatti in 1939 Type 64, 14 years before Mercedes-Benz produced its similar, famous 300SL gullwing door – is a precursor, but is often overlooked when discussing gull-wing design. Conventional car doors are typically hinged at the front-facing edge of the door, with the door swinging outward horizontally. Apart from the Mercedes-Benz 300SL of the mid-1950s and the experimental Mercedes-Benz C111 of the early 1970s, the best-known examples of road-cars with gull-wing doors are the Bricklin SV-1 from the 1970s, the DeLorean DMC-12 from the 1980s, and the Tesla Model X of the 2010s. Gull-wing doors have also been used in aircraft designs, such as the four-seat single-engine Socata TB series built in France.
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