Published at Wednesday, September 28th, 2016 - 22:11:13 PM. Door. By john.
Related accidents Doors : Door safety relates to prevention of door-related accidents. Such accidents take place in various forms, and in a number of locations; ranging from car doors to garage doors. Accidents vary in severity and frequency. According to the National Safety Council in the United States, 300,000 injuries are caused by doors every year. The types of accidents vary from relatively minor cases where doors cause damage to other objects, such as walls, to serious cases resulting in human injury, particularly to fingers, hands, and feet. A closing door can exert up to 40 tons per square inch of pressure between the hinges. Because of the number of accidents taking place, there has been a surge in the number of lawsuits. Thus organisations may be at risk when car doors or doors within buildings are unprotected. According to the US General Services Administration: ...It is essential that childrens fingers be protected from being crushed or otherwise injured in the hinge space of a swinging door or gate. There are simple devices available to attach to the hinge side, ensuring that this type of injury does not occur. As the door closes, the hand is pushed out of the opening, away from harm. In addition, young children are vulnerable to injury when they fall against the other (hinged) side of doors and gates, striking projected hinges. Piano hinges are not recommended to alleviate this problem as they tend to sag over time with heavy use. Instead, an inexpensive device fitting over hinges is available on the market and should be used to ensure safety... Outward and inward opening Whenever a door is opened outwards there is a risk that it could strike another person. In many cases this can be avoided by architectural design which favors doors which open inwards into rooms (from the perspective of a common area such as a corridor, the door opens outwards). In cases where this is infeasible, it may be possible to avoid an accident by placing windows in the door. However, inward-hinged doors can also escalate an accident by preventing people from escaping the building: people inside the building may press against the doors, and thus prevent the doors from opening. This was partly the case in the Grue Church fire in Norway in 1822. Today, the exterior doors of most large (especially public) buildings open outward, while interior doors such as doors to individual rooms, offices, suites, etc. open inward, as do many exterior doors of houses, particularly in North America. Doorstops Doorstops are simple devices used to prevent a door from coming into contact with another object (typically a wall). Without the door stop damage might be done to the wall. They may either absorb the force of a moving door, or hold the door in place to prevent unintended motion. Door guards The purpose of door guards (also known as hinge guards, anti-finger trapping devices, or finger guards) is to reduce the number of finger trapping accidents in doors, as doors pose a risk to children especially when closing. Door guards protect fingers in door hinges by covering the gap that is created by opening doors by covering the hinges of doors with a piece of rubber or plastic that wraps from the door frame to the door. There are also door safety products which eject the fingers from the push side of the door as it is being closed. There are various levels of door protection. Front door protection a front anti-finger trapping device but leaves the rear hinge pin side of the door unprotected. Full door protection uses front and rear anti-finger trapping devices and ensures the hinge side of a door is fully protected. Which level of protection is appropriate should be determined by a risk assessment of the door. There is also handle-side door protection, which prevents the door from slamming shut on the frame, which can cause injury to fingers/hands. Safety doors A safety door prevents finger injuries near the hinges without the use of door guards. Rather than cover the danger area, the approach is to change the shape of the door so that an accessible gap does not form in the first place. This is achieved by adding a perfectly circular ("bull-nose" shaped) extension to the door, which moves in and out of a cavity as the door opens and closes. This prevents any part of a hand being crushed near the hinges – either inside or outside. These doors have an operating range of slightly over 90 degrees, so their use is limited to where they come into contact with a side wall when fully open (or where they can be prevented from opening too far by a doorstop). Glass doors Glass doors pose the risk of unintentional collision if a person believes the door to be open when it is closed, or is unaware there is a door at all. This risk may be particularly pronounced with sliding glass doors because they often have large single panes which are hard to see. To prevent injury from glass doors, stickers or other types of warnings are sometimes placed on the glass surface to make it more visible. For instance, in the UK, Regulation 14 of the Workplace (Health and Safety Regulations) 1992 requires the marking of windows and glass doors to make them conspicuous. Australian Standards: AS1288 and AS2208 require glass doors to be made from laminated or toughened glass. Fire Special purpose fire doors are often employed in buildings to reduce the overall risk of fire, particularly by preventing the spread of fire and smoke. In cases where they are improperly installed, employed, or tampered with, the risk of fire can be increased. Door closers are sometimes used to ensure fire doors remain closed. An additional risk in a fire is that doors may prevent access to emergency services personnel in order to fight the fire, rescue occupants, etc. Door breaching techniques may be required in these situations to gain access. Panic bars are often used in buildings so that a door locked from the exterior can quickly and easily be opened from the inside in the event of a fire or other emergency. Vehicle doors There may be an increased risk of trapping hands or fingers in car doors compared to other types of doors, due to the proximity in which the occupant sits. In some car accidents, injury to occupants from the movement of car doors may occur Bicyclists often fear collision with an opening car door in case the cars occupant does not look carefully to check that it is safe to open the door. Because cyclists often ride near parked cars along the side of the road (see door zone) they are particularly vulnerable. Aircraft doors Doors which lead from interior, pressurized, sections of an aircraft to exterior or unpressurized areas can pose extreme risk if they are inadvertently opened during flight. This can be mitigated by having doors that open inwardly and are designed to be forced into their door frames by the internal cabin pressure – most cabin doors are of this type. However, an outward opening door is often advantageous for cargo doors to maximise available space, and these need to be secured by hefty locking mechanisms to overcome internal pressure. A number of accidents have occurred where outward-opening aircraft doors were opened in flight, often accidentally: • American Airlines Flight 96 (1972) • Turkish Airlines Flight 981 (1974) • United Airlines Flight 811 (1989).
Door types There are many types of door hinges. The main types include: Spring hinge a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened. Barrel hinge a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, and may also have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot. Pivot hinges which pivot in openings in the floor and the top of the door frame. Also referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and rarely in old wooden buildings. These are also called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors. Butt/Mortise hinges usually in threes or fours, which are inset (mortised) into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U.S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are often made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Case hinges Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however usually more of a decorative nature most commonly used in suitcases, briefcases and the like. Continuous hinges, or piano hinges This type of hinge is also known as a piano hinge. It runs the entire length of the door, panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured with or without holes. These hinges also come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, and knuckle lengths. Used for furniture doors (with or without self-closing feature, and with or without damping systems). They are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate. Also called "cup hinge", or "Euro hinge", as they were developed in Europe and use metric installation standards. Most such concealed hinges offer the advantage of full in situ adjustability for standoff distance from the cabinet face as well as pitch and roll by means of two screws on each hinge. Butterfly hinges, or Parliament (UK) Hinges These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century. The form of these hinges varied slightly between manufacturers, and their size ranged from the very large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes. Many hinges of this type were exported to America to support the home trades limited supply. They are still found to be both fairly cheap and decorative, especially on small items. Flag hinges A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can also swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a right hand and a left hand configuration. Strap hinges An early hinge and used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets. H hinges Shaped like an H and used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges (3–4 in or 76–102 mm) tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges (6–7 in or 150–180 mm) are for passage doors or closet doors. HL hinges Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and even 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were occasionally used in the middle along with the HL hinges. Other types include: • Counterflap hinge • Flush hinge • Coach hinge • Rising Butt hinge • Double action spring hinge • Double action non-spring • Tee hinge • Friction hinge • Security hinge • Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge • Lift-off hinge • Self closing hinge
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