By john. Door. Published at Sunday, November 27th, 2016 - 01:11:13 AM.
Large structures Hinges appear in large structures such as elevated freeway and railroad viaducts. These are included to reduce or eliminate the transfer of bending stresses between structural components, typically in an effort to reduce sensitivity to earthquakes. The primary reason for using a hinge, rather than a simpler device such as a slide, is to prevent the separation of adjacent components. When no bending stresses are transmitted across the hinge it is called a zero moment hinge.
Butterfly doors : Butterfly doors or vertical doors are a type of door sometimes seen on high-performance cars. They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar. This makes for easier entry/exit at the expense of requiring more opening space than needed for scissor doors. The McLaren F1, Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, Saleen S7, Enzo Ferrari and its non road-going version, the FXX, Toyota Sera/EXY-10, and the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, among others, use butterfly doors. It was also a common feature for Group C and IMSA GTP/Camel Lights prototype racers as they incorporate teardrop tops which allows the driver to get in and out of the car more quickly than conventional and gullwing doors, especially in a cramped pitlane environment such as the pre-1991 Le Mans circuit. Since then, butterfly doors have been an adopted design of closed top sportscar racers, such as the Toyota GT-One, Bentley Speed 8 and more recently, the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP. The Toyota Sera, made between 1990 and 1995, was a limited-release car designed exclusively for the Japanese market which used this design. The Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Roadster was one of the few open top cars to use butterfly wing doors. This is made possible by having the doors hinged at the side of A-pillar instead of at top by the roof. The McLaren MP4-12C has a unique system where the butterfly doors do not use a top hinge meaning that the car can use frameless windows which allows for the cars convertible version to retain them.
Car Door General design : Unlike other types of doors, the exterior side of the vehicle door contrasts in its design and finish from its interior side (the interior part is typically equipped with a door card (in British English) or a door panel (in American English) that has decorative and functional features. The exterior side of the door is designed of steel or other material like the rest of the vehicles exterior. In addition, its decorative appearance, typically colored with a design, is intended to match with the rest of the vehicles exterior, the central purpose being to add to the overall aesthetic appeal of the vehicle exterior. A vehicle typically has two types of doors: front doors and rear doors. Loosely related are: vehicle hoodsand vehicle trunk lids. There are also doors known as a hatch (see door categorization below) A major safety issue with opened vehicle doors is the assumption at night vehicle doors can provide a warning to other vehicle drivers. Unfortunately it is estimated over 50 percent of all vehicle doors have nothing applied to the interior of the vehicle door such as light and/or a reflector. Unfortunately these devices need not meet any US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards since no standards apply. To make matters worse it was reported by the Fatal Accident Reporting System that in the year 2014 not one single death was reported with a person outside the opened vehicle door at night in the entire United States of America. New safety technology such as providing to the lower interior edge of the vehicle door a highly reflective tape provides the ability of other vehicle drivers to see the opened vehicle door at night ( see US Patent No. 9,308,859 for details including diagrams of a typical application ).
Applications : Architectural doors have numerous general and specialized uses. Doors are generally used to separate interior spaces (closets, rooms, etc.) for convenience, privacy, safety, and security reasons. Doors are also used to secure passages into a building from the exterior, for reasons of climate control and safety Doors also are applied in more specialized cases: • A Blast-proof door is constructed to allow access to a structure as well as to provide protection from the force of explosions. • A garden door is any door that opens to a backyard or garden. This term is often used specifically for French windows, double French doors (with lites instead of panels), in place of a sliding glass door. The term also may refer to what is known as patio doors • A jib door is a concealed door, whose surface reflects the moldings and finishes of the wall. These were used in historic English houses, mainly as servants doors • A pet door (also known as a cat flap or dog door) is an opening in a door to allow pets to enter and exit without the main doors being opened. It may be simply covered by a rubber flap, or it may be an actual door hinged on the top that the pet can push through. Pet doors may be mounted in a sliding glass door as a new (permanent or temporary) panel. Pet doors may be unidirectional, only allowing pets to exit. Additionally, pet doors may be electronic, only allowing animals with a special electronic tag to enter. • A trapdoor is a door that is oriented horizontally in a ceiling or floor, often accessed via a ladder. • A water door or water entrance, such as those used in Venice, Italy, is a door leading from a building built on the water, such as a canal, to the water itself where, for example, one may enter or exit a private boat or water taxi.
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